Chinggis is known to the world as conqueror of empires. Chinggis Khan is not a name, but title meaning “universal ruler”. From a tough childhood, starvation and suffering, he turned out to become one of the most successful generals in war history. He enabled the Mongols to forge the largest empire in history. He is brutal, clever, cunning and fast learner ability earned him the title of Universal ruler. He is a towering historical figure.
The Mongol army, led by Chinggis khan in 13th century, executed the largest military expansion in history. The scale of his success is unbelievable. In 20 years of conquest the Great khan conquered North China, North-west China and Central Asia. Later on, his grandsons such as Bat Khan, Khulegu, Khublai khan extended the size of empire as far as from Hungary in the west to sea of Japan in the east.
The explosive Mongol expansion on the early 13th century seems like hard to explain. But it has many factors. First of all, Chinggis Khan was a great leader with charisma. He appreciated those who are loyal to their masters. He attracted many followers and they have never betrayed him. Nomadic way of lifestyle had made the Mongols resourceful warriors. Their main weapon was short but strong bow as Mongols call them “Ogotor num” meaning “short bow”. Mongol army fought on units of 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 as Mongols name it “tumen” (tumen means ten thousand). This system was used during the Xiong-nu empire, ancestors of the Mongols.
His army was based on iron discipline and talent. Chinggis khans leaders and generals were picked up by basing on their personal abilities rather than religious, political, traditional, or heredity affiliations. In this way, Chinggis Khan established a large cadre system of very abled officers. These men were not only talented, but loyal to their master Chinggis Khan, which he could rely on them with confidence. Chinggis Khaan addressed to his troops: “if we are victorious, let no one take booty right then, it will be shared equally later” which meant that first of all, job has to be done. This was a new way of system. After winning battle, victorious nomads would often stop on booty, which gives the enemy chance to run away and regroup. Spoils of war had to wait until the job was done.
Mongols were also innovative. They were willing to try new strategies when faced with new enemies. Terror tactics were also Chinggis Khan’s main weapon. Using tactics of terror he spread fear among his enemies and giving them understanding that resisting against Mongols is useless. It seems like he is a blood thirsty barbarian, but actually, it was a carefully calculated plan that made the conquest a lot easier and it worked too. This is also explained that Mongol army was always outnumbered by the populations they conquered. It was difficult for Mongols to leave large number of hostile people behind them. It was safer and more effective to eliminate them.
Chinggis Khan’s campaigns are undoubtedly one of the largest military expansions in history. His legacy was far more than bandit warfare. He also created effective system of governing an empire. He used talented officials to control and rule his empire. Later, his heirs continue his work to establish large empire.
Many people believe that he had intention of ruling all the earth but this is not true. He spent most of his time fighting inside Mongolia and at the age of 44 he finally manages to united the Mongol and Turkic tribes in the steppes. Although Chinggis Khan admired the achievements of settled civilizations he remained the true nomad until his last days of his life.